The title is a brief indication of what is to be expected.
The abstract describes the entire paper or project with an emphasis on that which is most important. (Typically, 1-2 paragraphs or approximately 125-250 words)
a. A description of the purpose of the study
b. A clearly defined research question
c. Clearly defined central concepts
d. Include clear measurable objectives
e. A discussion of what has been done prior to the proposed problem
f. A discussion of what one plans to do
g. Describe the source of the idea
h. Explain why this study is important
(Typically, 2-4 paragraphs or approximately 250-500 words)
4. Literature Review
a. An in-depth review of previous work
b. Include several articles of the last five years
c. The recent articles can be supplemented with recent scholarly books and articles, but
also older literature on a sparingly basis. (Refrain from textbooks or sensationalism
d. Provide a logical sequence from what is known to what remains unanswered
(15-20 sources is considered appropriate with about one paragraph each; special note read at least 5 of the articles entirely; and 1 book entirely; 15-20 paragraphs is roughly 1750-2500 words or 8-10 pages double spaced)
5. Theoretical Framework
a. Provide a theory or theoretical framework that informs the literature review.
b. The same theory should also inform the research process.
(approximately 1-2 paragraphs less, 125-250 words)
a. Have a clearly stated hypothesis.
b. What are the variables?
c. What are the controls?
d. Describe the sample participants and the population they represent if applicable. (How
well does the sample representative of the population in terms demographic characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, education level, income etc; what are the shortcomings of the sample.)
e. State how many participants were selected and how were they selected.
f. Describe the measures that are used and the research design that is employed.
g. Describe the analytic plan including participant instructions.
h. Provide a narrative description of the results of all methods that were used.
(approximately 2-5 paragraphs or 250-625 words)
7. Discussion of Results
a. Provide an organized summary of the data
b. Discuss uses of statistics and sources of error
c. Describe all tables, figures, photographs
d. Overall, this section provides the audience with proof of one’s work.
(approximately 10-15 paragraphs; 5-8 pages, or 2500-3750 words)
a. Do the findings support the hypothesis or refute the hypothesis?
b. Discuss how the findings compare to that which was found in prior research.
c. Describe the limitations of the study.
d. Describe how the findings contribute to the discipline, industry, or grassroots leaders, or
to whoever would benefit.
e. What does the project or research imply for future research?
f. How can the study be further refined?
(approximately 2-4 paragraphs; 250-500 words